Lombok has a close relationship with Bali, but also has Islamic and local traditions. The kings of Mataram took control of the whole island in 1838, plus Karangasem on Bali. (Not to be confused with Mataram on Java.)
Sumbawa includes Gunung Tambora, a volcano that exploded in 1815. Two Islamic sultanates ruled here.
Flores remembers a Portuguese influence; there are many Catholics.
Sumba is known for its sandalwood and horses. It did not come under the Dutch until 1906.
Roti is known for its many educated residents.
Timor was divided between the Dutch and the Portuguese in the 1600s, a division that was formalized in 1859. For many years Kupang was the easternmost point of European exploration in the area.
East Timor remained a Portuguese colony until 1975, when it was incorporated into Indonesia. Several years of guerilla warfare followed. A referendum on August 30, 1999 led to the separation of East Timor from Indonesia. The territory remains under United Nations administration in preparation for full independence.
In 1958 Sunda Kecil or Lesser Sunda province was divided into the three provinces of Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, and Bali.