Sejarah Indonesia

1830 to 1910: Imperialism and Modernisation



Johannes van den Bosch arrives as the new Governor-General, begins the "cultuurstelsel" or "culture system".

Forced cultivation of indigo is introduced in the Priangan.

First steamboat arrives in the Indies.

Nederlands Zendelinggenootschap (Dutch Missionary Society) begins offering education to "native" children.

December 4 Van den Bosch officially organizes the Dutch forces from the Java War into the Oost-Indische Leger, or "East Indies Army" (later KNIL).




Nederlands-IndiŽ government manages a balanced budget.

Dutch forces fighting the Padri in Sumatra reach the Bonjol area.

U.S. ships shell coastal villages in Aceh in an action against piracy.

Gov.-Gen. Johannes van den Bosch

It was only after the Java War that the Dutch began to think about a real empire in the Indies. From 1830 to the end of the century, the Dutch began a drive to take complete control of the areas from Aceh to New Guinea, and to extract as much profit as possible from the valuable areas, such as the Priangan area of West Java.

Revenues from the Indies paid for as much as one-third of the Dutch government's budget in the mid-1800s. These monies helped to finance the industrialization and development of the Netherlands in the 1800s. The burden fell especially upon the Netherlands Indies, since the Dutch had lost many of their other colonies to the British during the Napoleonic wars (including South Africa and Sri Lanka), and since Belgium with its business and industry broke away from the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1830.

The government was called the Netherlands Indies, or Nederlands-IndiŽ in Dutch, or Hindia Belanda in Indonesian today.



Dutch depose Sultan of Jailolo and take control of Halmahera.

Under the "culture system", Javanese were required to grow a certain amount of crops for export--more coffee, sugar, spices and indigo, but less rice to feed the people. The system worked without great controversy for the first few years. About 1845, a series of poor harvests led to greater poverty and even famine on Java--famine that was aggravated because the best lands were being used for tobacco, sugar or coffee instead of rice, and because the land in general had been exhausted by overproduction. Van den Bosch had specified that local farmers should be given leeway to grow their own food, but colonial officials under him ignored these orders in pursuit of ever larger cash crops.

The products of the culture system were sold through the Nederlandse Handel-Maatschappij, run by the Netherlands government, and the profits were kept by the Netherlands. The King of the Netherlands owned significant shares in the NHM, and gained an extra fortune from its profits. (The NHM survives today as the Algemene Bank Nederland.)

The Netherlands Indies nearly went bankrupt in the 1820s; after van den Bosch, it returned large budget surpluses to the Netherlands throughout the 1830s (and into the 1870s).



January Minangkabau villages around Bonjol rise up in popular rebellion; Dutch troops in the area are massacred. Padri war heats up; Dutch seal off the coast. Sentot fights on Dutch side, but was probably not pro-Dutch in his heart. Dutch place Sentot under watch in Bengkulu (until 1855).

Sultan of Jambi asks for Dutch help against Palembang.

A traditional Minangkabau house in an old photo.



Dutch force Sultan Muhammad Fahruddin of Jambi to recognize Dutch sovereignty.

Portuguese government expels Dominican friars from East Timor.




Dutch abandon Fort Du Bus on Irian.




Bonjol in Minangkabau finally falls to the Dutch in the Padri War. Tuanku Imam Bonjol surrenders and is sent into exile.

Tuanku Imam Bonjol was one of the main leaders in the Padri war. Other fighters against the Dutch included the "Harimau Nan Selapan" or "eight tigers", led by Haji Miskin.



Dutch victory at Daludalu ends the Padri war in Minangkabau. Direct Dutch rule in Minangkabau is enforced (adat law and nobility appear pro-Dutch, Islamic leaders appear anti-Dutch).

Dutch expedition against Flores.

Bone renews Treaty of Bungaya; fighting against the Dutch subsides.

Dutch establish presence on Nias.

Sulaiman inherits rule of Aceh, but Tuanku Ibrahim rules as guardian, ruling Aceh until 1870.

Mataram kingdom on Lombok takes control of the whole island, plus Karangasem on Bali.




Danish merchant Mads Lange opens a trading post at Kuta on Bali.


Dutch Imperialism: 1815-1870

The Dutch fought two major wars in the 1820s. They still did not control many areas in their imagined sphere of influence, including Aceh, Bali, much of Sulawesi and Nusa Tenggara.

Leaders among the Indonesians included:

Pattimura in Ambon in 1817

Pangeran Diponegoro in the Java War, 1825-1830

Imam Tuanku Bonjol in the Padri War in the 1830s



The rajas of Badung, Klungkung, Karangasem and Buleleng on Bali sign treaties recognizing Dutch sovereignty; rajas to keep internal power.

James Brooke begins creating private empire for himself in Sarawak.




Dutch withdraw from east coast of Sumatra north of Palembang due to British worries.

The nobility in Surakarta is arrested under suspicion of inciting revolt.




Raja of Lombok accepts Dutch sovereignty.

Famine in Cirebon.

By this time, there was a movement of people out of the Priangan, Cirebon, and nearby areas of West Java towards areas that were less strictly controlled by the culture system. Local bupatis and Dutch officials were instructed to send these internal refugees home whenever possible.

In the 1840s, as much as two-thirds of the money earned by a Javanese farmer on his crops could be taken by taxes.



Rajas of Buleleng and Karangasem are dissatisfied with Dutch, and refuse to ratify treaties.




Vanilla industry started on Java.




June Netherlands Indies force attacks Buleleng; other rajas secretly support the anti-Dutch forces. Palace at Singaraja is destroyed. Raja of Buleleng signs a treaty of submission. Netherlands Indies bases a garrison at Singaraja.

Netherlands Indies expedition against Flores.

Typhoid epidemic in Java.

Netherlands Indies takes control of Samarinda.

First commercial coal mine is opened at Martapura, South Kalimantan.

Revolt in Banten.

It was traditional on Bali for shipwrecks to be salvaged by the local population. The Dutch considered this to be looting and theft. The cultural clash led to continual political and military conflict between the Netherlands Indies government and the rajas on Bali.



Dutch military expedition to Nias.




June Netherlands Indies sends a military force to Bali in response to conflicts over the enforcement of treaties with the local rajas. The force is defeated by a Balinese force under Gusti Ketut Jilantik at Jagaraga, and withdraws from the island.

New constitution in Netherlands: Dutch States-General has some control over colonial affairs.

Revised commercial, civil and criminal codes for the Netherlands Indies are introduced, applicable to people of European descent only.

Demonstration in Batavia, led by Baron van Hoevell (a Dutch Reformed minister), petitions the King of the Netherlands for freedom of the press, public secondary schools, and representation for the Netherlands Indies in the States General.

Regency schools, for the education and training of the children of local rulers and nobles, begin operations.

The Dutch had some concern that if they did not demonstrate control over Bali, the British might move in and take it for themselves.



April Major Netherlands Indies military force is sent to Bali. Gusti Ketut Jilantik falls in battle. Netherlands Indies takes control of Buleleng and the north coast of Bali.

May Netherlands Indies forces enter southern Bali for the first time, moving through Karangasem and Klungkung to put down resistance.

The raja of Lombok attacks and takes Karangasem.

Dutch take full control in Palembang.




Dutch begin missionary work among Bataks of north Sumatra.

Famine in Central Java.

Dutch purchase the remaining Portuguese posts on Flores.

The Netherlands Indies government prohibited Catholic missionaries from visiting the Bataks on Sumatra or the Toraja on Sulawesi. Only Protestant missionaries were allowed in those areas.



"Dokter-Jawa" school founded in Gambir, Batavia.

Billiton Maatschappij begins tin mining on Belitung. Many Chinese laborers are imported.




Aceh sends an emissary to Napoleon III of France.

Cola trees are introduced on Java.

Dutch end the tax on the hajj.




Dutch begin administering north Bali.

Mangkunegara IV takes his title in Surakarta.

A local ruler on Madura, about 1853.



Netherlands government issues a constitutional reform for the Netherlands Indies ("Regeeringsreglement"). Local rulers in the Indies are to continue to have traditional powers over their subjects, ruling on behalf of the Dutch. A strict separation betweens Europeans and "Inlanders" is recognized in the law.

Governor-General of the Netherlands Indies receives the power to exile anyone without appeal or review.

Aceh establishes authority over Langkat, Deli and Serdang on east coast of Sumatra ("pepper ports").

Introduction of cinchona (quinine) cultivation to the Priangan, at Cibodas, West Java.




Hamengkubuwono VI becomes Sultan of Yogya.

Dutch military expedition to Nias.

Dutch extend control over western Kalimantan.




Regulation on Publications gives the Governor-General authority to conduct prepublication censorship of the press without appeal or review.

March Eduard Douwes Dekker is dismissed from his government post in West Java after accusing local bupatis of corruption. (Later, under the pen name "Multatuli", he writes the novel "Max Havelaar", exposing conditions in colonial Java to readers in the Netherlands.)

Dutch military expedition to Flores.

Eduard Douwes Dekker, or "Multatuli"



Dutch intervene in succession to Sultanate of Banjarmasin, support Tamjidillah over more popular Hidayatullah.

First telegraph line is laid from Batavia to Buitenzorg.

Netherlands Indies 1/2 cent from 1857 showing both Malay/Arabic script and "huruf jawa" Javanese characters.



Dutch expedition against south Sulawesi.

Ratu Taha Saifuddin of Jambi refuses treaty with Dutch, flees into jungle with pusaka (emblems or heirlooms of his house), fights until 1904.

Dutch take Siak in north Sumatra by treaty, and move troops in to prevent British adventurers from gaining a foothold there. The boundary of Siak is defined to include Langkat and Deli, infringing on Acehnese territory.

Nederlands-IndiŽ government running at a deficit due to military expenses.

Pakubuwono VIII becomes Susuhunan of Solo.




Banjarmasin War led by Pangeran Antasari; Dutch withdraw support for Tamjidillah, send him to Bogor.

Portuguese sign accord with the Dutch: Portuguese abandon outposts and claims on Flores and Solor to the Dutch, and retain possession of Portuguese Timor. Division between West and East Timor is set.

Dutch government bans slavery in the Netherlands Indies.

Dutch military expedition to Bone to depose Queen Basse Kajuara.

Telegraph cable is laid from Batavia to Singapore.




"Max Havelaar" is published.

Dutch open Savu.

Dutch abolish the Sultanate of Banjarmasin, and enforce direct colonial rule.

Dutch extend protectorate over Wajo in Sulawesi.

"Max Havelaar" exposed the abuses of Dutch colonial rule on Java, and put political pressure on the Netherlands government to make reforms in the colonies.



Pakubuwono IX becomes Susuhunan of Solo.

German Protestant missionaries begin working around Lake Toba in northern Sumatra.



Hidayatullah surrenders in Banjarmasin, and is exiled to Java. Antasari dies of smallpox, guerilla war continues.

Compulsory pepper cultivation ends.




Dutch military expedition to Nias.

British send gunboats to Langkat and other "pepper ports" on Sumatra.

July 1 Slavery officially ends in the Netherlands Indies.

Tobacco cultivation is introduced to Northern Sumatra.

Fransen van de Putte, a former plantation owner on Java and opponent of the culture system, becomes Netherlands Minister of Colonies.

Compulsory clove and nutmeg cultivation ends.

In 1863, the government of the Netherlands used profits from the exploitation of the Netherlands Indies to compensate former slaveholders in Suriname in South America, after slavery was abolished there.



April 1 First Netherlands Indies postage stamp is issued.

Dutch experiment with rubber cultivation in Java and Sumatra.

Dutch claim Mentawai Islands.

The last Sultan of Siak abdicates.

First Netherlands Indies postage stamp, 1864.



Compulsory cultivation of tea, cinnamon, cochineal and indigo ends.

Dutch introduce tobacco to Deli and northern Sumatra.

Dutch institute direct rule in the Sultanate of Asahan in northern Sumatra and remove the Sultan to Riau.

New forestry laws and regulations are introduced.

The Raja of Buleleng on Bali, in an 1865 photo.



Compulsory tobacco cultivation ends.

Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule on Sumba.




Gunung Merapi erupts near Yogya; 1000 are killed.

"Accountability Law" prescribes that the finances of the Netherlands Indies should be separate from those of the Netherlands.

Netherlands Indies Department of Education is organized.

Mangkunegara IV is remembered for his promotion of traditional Javanese culture, philosophy, and mysticism, especially in his literary works.



Dutch tighten control over Bengkulu.




1/3 of the population of Savu dies from smallpox.

Aceh appeals to the Ottoman Empire for protection.

Deli Maatschappij is founded by private investors.

In 1869, the Suez Canal opened, which greatly reduced the travel time and effort between Europe and Asia by sea, and gave places such as Aceh much more strategic importance.



Minahasa area comes under direct Dutch rule.

Sultan Mahmud Syah rules Aceh until 1874.

Sugar Act begins a period of agricultural reform.

Coffee blight afflicts Java.

Regular steamship service to the Netherlands through the Suez canal begins.

Street vendor in Batavia selling soup, about 1870.



Agrarian Act encourages privatization of agriculture, starts to dismantle many practices of the "culture system".

Smallpox kills 18,000 in Bali.

Telegraph cable is laid from Banyuwangi, Java to Australia.

November Treaty of Sumatra between British and Dutch: Dutch give Gold Coast to British; Dutch may send contract labor from India to Dutch Guiana; Dutch get free hand in Sumatra, British and Dutch both have trade rights in Aceh. Effect of this treaty: there is no more foreign objection to the Dutch taking Aceh.

A Bugis house, rebuilt for the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.



Batak war begins in north Sumatra, lasting until 1895.




January 25 Emissary from Aceh holds talks with the American consul in Singapore, but USA help is rejected by Washington. The Dutch respond with war.

March 26 Dutch bombard Banda Aceh.

April 8 Dutch land troops at Banda Aceh.

April 25 Acehnese force the Dutch to withdraw.

Sultan of Kutai signs a treaty recognizing the Dutch.

Assam tea plants from India are introduced to replace Chinese tea plants, which had been disappointing. Tea production starts to rise.

First railways are built on Java.

November 11 Dutch invade Aceh again, and maintain their positions, but would sustain heavy losses due to disease.

The Dutch would waste over 30 years trying to take full control of Aceh, and would never fully succeed.



January 24 Acehnese abandon Banda Aceh and retreat to the hills. Dutch announce that Sultanate of Aceh is ended.

Sultan Mahmud Syah of Aceh dies in the jungle; Sultan Ibrahim Mansur Syah heads sultanate in hills until 1907. Teuku Umar of the Acehnese nobility leads the Acehnese forces.

Dutch expedition to Flores.

Dutch send an official to the Aru Islands.

Teuku Umar

In the mid-1880s, and again in the mid-1890s, Teuku Umar would briefly switch sides in the Aceh war. This sort of behavior lessened the reputation of the nobility in Aceh among the common fighters.



The Netherlands Indies, Australia, and Germany set a boundary between their claims on New Guinea.

Palace guards for the Sultan of Ternate, 1875.



Introduction of rubber cultivation to Java.

Baba Hassan leads revolt on Halmahera.




Hamengkubuwono VII becomes Sultan of Yogya.

After this point, the Nederlands-IndiŽ government operates at a loss.



Compulsory sugar and coffee cultivation starts to be eliminated.

Expedition under Gen. Van der Heijden burns 500 villages in Aceh to the ground.

Teungku Cik di Tiro, an Islamic ulama, starts leading the resistance in Aceh.

Teungku Cik di Tiro



R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.

Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.

Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.



Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.

Koelie Ordonnantie ("Coolie Ordinance") specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.

First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia.

The legal reforms of this period meant that feudal rights and privileges of the nobility were cancelled. The average person won a few freedoms, but many changes simply meant that power passed from traditional rulers to Dutch officials.



Minahasa chiefs are made salaried officials of the Netherlands Indies.

Mangkunegara IV passes away.

In the early 1880s, a resident of Kudus named Haji Jamahri took up the habit of mixing cloves into a hand-rolled cigarette to relieve the symptoms of asthma. This was the origin of the "kretek" or clove cigarette. Commercial manufacture of kretek, however, would not start in earnest until the 1930s.



Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule in Buleleng and Jembrana on Bali.

Netherlands Indies takes control of Karangasem and Gianyar on Bali. Bali and Lombok become a single Residency; the rajas of south Bali are unhappy, but continue to fight among themselves.

Aru and Tanimbar islands come under Dutch administration.

August 6 Tjokroaminoto born.

Sugar blight hits Java.

Dutch military expedition on Seram.

Oil found around Kutai on Kalimantan.

Islamic courts are given limited authority on Java ("Priesterraden"). Their jurisdiction is limited to family law.




Sisingamangaraja XII is expelled from the Batak region.

Krakatau erupts; 36,000 are killed in West Java and Lampung.

A. J. Zijlker gets approval from Dutch to start drilling for oil in Langkat, north Sumatra.

Revolt in favor of Pangeran Suryengalaga fails in Yogya.

Musicians from Java at the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.



Guerilla war heats up in Aceh. Dutch build "Geconcentreerde Linie" in Aceh: a series of 16 forts designed to contain guerillas.

Dutch institute direct rule in Deli.

Communications services are consolidated by the government into PTT (Post Telegraaf Telefoon).

Dutch-led troops in Aceh stand over the bodies of guerilla fighters. Many of the common soldiers in the Netherlands Indies forces were not Dutch, but were recruited from Java, Sulawesi, and other parts of Indonesia.

The Netherlands Indies government-run PTT would become the ancestor of Indonesia's state-run phone companies after independence, and today's Telkom.



Sultan of Asahan is returned from exile to his territory to rule for the Dutch.

Dutch institute direct rule in Madura.

Persons of Chinese descent in the Netherlands Indies are classified as "Europeans" for purposes of commercial law only.




Modern harbor is built at Tanjung Priok, Batavia (today's Jakarta).




Sultans of Madura have been reduced to bupati status.

Economic depression in Java.




Earthquake hits Bali.

Dutch Resident in Surakarta takes control of the finances of the Mangkunegara house.

Revolt in Banten led by the Qadiriyya order.

North Borneo (Sabah) becomes a British protectorate.

Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij is founded as the major inter-island shipping and passenger line.

On Java in this period, there were over 80 local rulers keeping the title of "Sultan", "Susuhunan" or "Bupati" ruling in theory, while the Dutch held the real power.

The status of Sabah or North Borneo went back and forth between 1865 and 1888, as different colonial interests bought and sold claims to the territory. The eventual winner was the British North Borneo company, but the confusion over claims to the area would reappear during the creation of Malaysia in the 1960s.



Zijlker founds company that would become Royal Dutch Shell.

Dutch expedition against Flores.

Netherlands Indies introduces a property tax.




Mengwi in Bali is taken over by Badung.

Naqshbandiyya rebel in Lombok against Mataram-Balinese rule; Dutch intervene.

First contract workers leave Java for Surinam in South America.

A traditional masjid in Aceh from the late 1800s.



Pakubuwono X becomes Susuhunan of Solo.

"First Class" schools for native Indonesians are established.




Final Dutch intervention in Lombok is successful; nobility goes down in puputan; Karangasem becomes Dutch dependency.

"Batak War" ends.

Rebellion against Portuguese in East Timor.

Netherlands Indies organizes a state-run opium monopoly to control the opium trade (Opiumregie).

A "puputan" was a suicide charge by Balinese nobility to defend their honor when all else was lost. The families of the court would put on ceremonial clothes, arm themselves with false weapons and walk directly into enemy gunfire.

Reports of the terrible events on Lombok reached back to the Netherlands, and caused very different reactions in different segments of society. The popular press promoted war fever, and over 3000 army volunteers agreed to go to the Indies and fight for the Netherlands crown. However, other observers were shocked, and their reactions helped start the movement towards moderate reform in the colonial government that would eventually be known as the "Ethical Policy".



Jami'at Khair founded; organization dedicated to Arabic education.

Portuguese Timor, formerly administered from Macao, receives its own administration.

British-Dutch agreement sets the boundary between their claims on Irian (New Guinea).




King Chulalongkorn of Thailand makes a state visit to the Netherlands Indies.

Dutch go on attack against guerillas in Aceh with special forces (Korps Marechaussee).



Dutch begin exploring Irian Jaya.

Van Heutsz becomes Dutch Governor of Aceh. His advisor Snouck Hurgronje introduces "Korte Verklaring", a short treaty recognizing Dutch rule, to replace older complicated agreements with local rulers; Dutch pursue alliance with uleebalangs against Islamic leaders.

June Van Heutsz sends a successful Dutch expedition against Pidie, Aceh.

Snouck Hurgronje studied Islam in Indonesia as an observer, and was an advisor to Van Heutsz and other government officials in the Netherlands Indies. In 1885, he travelled secretly to Mecca, and reported that at that time, there was a significant number of Malays and Indonesians living there.

Starting about this time, the Dutch began to encourage Islamic worship and practice, as long as politics were not involved. The goal was to channel Islamic enthusiasm away from politics and nationalism.



R. A. Kartini begins letter-writing career.

Pesantren Tebuireng, a famous Islamic school, is founded at Jombang, East Java.

Teuku Umar is killed during a Dutch ambush.

Van Deventer, a colonial reformer, publishes "Een Eereschuld", demanding that monies collected in the past from the Netherlands Indies be restituted to the Indies to help pay off the rising colonial debt.


Dutch Imperialism: 1870-1910

During this period the Dutch tried to take complete control of all the areas they claimed. This was the era of "high imperialism", when powers such as Britain and France were facing competition from new colonial powers such as Germany and Italy, and most unclaimed parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific were being taken by one power before another could get an opportunity. The "Netherlands Indies" were vital to the Dutch economy: the profits from coffee, tobacco, oil, and other products helped finance the industrialization of the Netherlands.


Raja of Gianyar on Bali submits to Dutch authority.

Upper schools at Bandung, Magelang and Probolinggo reorganized to train Javanese candidates for local civil service.

Traditional warriors on Nias, 1900.



Jambi placed under control of Dutch Resident of Palembang during succession question and related unrest.

Zijlker's Royal Dutch oil company expands to Kalimantan.

Dutch place a garrison on the Mentawai Islands.

June 6 Sukarno is born.

Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands announces "Ethical Policy" towards the Indies.

Europeans in the Indies, who controlled the economy and government, paid only 20% of the tax revenues of the Indies. Most of the tax burden still fell on native Indonesians, in spite of the dismantlement of the culture system. These revenues were used, among other things, to finance Dutch military conquests in the outer islands.

But it was not enough. By this time, the Dutch government was sending more money to support the Netherlands Indies than it was collecting from the Indies in revenues. Most of the cash flow from the Indies to the Netherlands after 1900 was in the hands of private businesses.



Dutch end restrictions on the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).




Sultan of Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, surrenders to the Dutch, but keeps secret contact with guerillas.

Netherlands Indies begins opening MULO schools for elementary education.

Decentralization Act gives a small number of seats in local and provincial governments to natives of the Indies. First elections ever on Java are held.

Netherlands Indies treasury gets a treasury separate from the home treasury in the Netherlands.

Van Heutsz surveys troops in the field in Aceh.
Thirty years of war in Aceh cost 60,000 Acehnese lives, plus over 2,000 Dutch soldiers killed in battle, and over 10,000 Dutch soldiers dead from disease. Another 25,000 forced laborers under the Dutch died in Aceh in this period.



Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).

Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.

May The ship "Sri Koemala" is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship's owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.

Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.

An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.

Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.

Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).

Van Heutsz as Governor-General.



January Dutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.

Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.

August Dutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.

Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.

Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.

First trade union is founded for railway workers.

October 16 Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.

Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.

Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.




September 15 Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.

September 16 Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.

September 20 Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.

Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.

September 23 Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.

Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.

Dutch take direct control of Sumba.

Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.

Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.




Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.

Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.

Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.

King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.

Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.

Zijlker's Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.

Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.

New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.




Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.

Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.

Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.

VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.

May 20 Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.

October Budi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.

Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.

Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.

Netherlands Indies introduces income tax.

Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It's interest was limited to Javanese culture.



Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.

Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.

Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.

Dutch establish control on Buru.

Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.



Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.

Jami'at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.

Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.

Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.

Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.

Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910.

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